week 2 tif-201 strategi managemen


Algoritma© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follllow tthiis Learniing Outtlliine sebagai anda membaca keras-keras dan sttudy tthiis chaptter.. IImportance of Strategiic Management • Define pimpinan strategis, strategi, dan business model. • Explain mengapa pimpinan strategis penting. Strategiic Management Process • List keenam langkah di proses pimpinan strategis. • Describe manajer yang mana melakukan selama eksternal dan internal menganalisa. • Explain tugas sumber penghasilan, kemampuan, dan core competencies. • Define kekuatan, kelemahan, kesempatan, dan ancaman.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) baca Follllow tthiis Learniing Outtlliine sebagai anda keras-keras dan sttudy tthiis chaptter.. Macam Organiizatiionall Strategiies • Describe ketiga macam utama strategi bisnis. • Discuss matriks BCG dan bagaimana it’s bekas. • Describe tugas keuntungan bersaing di businesslevel strategi. • Explain Porter’s lima angkatan perang model. • Describe Porter’s tiga strategi bersaing yang umum and peraturan sebanyak tiga.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) baca Follllow tthiis Learniing Outtlliine sebagai anda keras-keras dan sttudy tthiis chaptter.. Macam Organiizatiionall Strategiies • Describe ketiga macam utama strategi bisnis. • Discuss matriks BCG dan bagaimana it’s bekas. • Describe tugas keuntungan bersaing di businesslevel strategi. • Explain Porter’s Lima angkatan perang model. • Describe Porter’s tiga strategi bersaing yang umum dan peraturan sebanyak tiga.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–7
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–5 Strategiic Management • What dilakukan manajer untuk berkembang the organization’s strategi. Strategiies • The keputusan dan tindakan bahwa memutuskan the perbuatan organisasi yang berlari panjang. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–6 Strategic Management (cont’d) • Business Model IIs sttrattegiic desiign ffor bagaimana perusahaan iinttends tto proffiitt ffrom iitts sttrattegiies,, kerja mengolah,, dan work acttiiviittiies.. Focuses di ttwo tthiings:: Whether pelanggan akan menilai apa yang disediakan oleh perusahaan. Whether perusahaan bisa memperoleh uang yang mana pun yang melakukan itu. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–7 Why adalah Strategic Management IImportant 1. Adalah akibatnya di lebih tinggi organizational perbuatan. 2. Memerlukan bahwa manajer memeriksa dan adapt sampai ganti lingkungan perusahaan. 3. Mengkoordinasikan bermacam-macam organizational units, menolong mereka menumpukan di organizational cita-cita. 4. Sangat dilibatkan di managerial membuat keputusan proses.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–9 Strategic Management Process • Step 1: Mengenali organization’s sekarang misi, cita-cita, dan strategi Miissiion: tthe ffiirm’s akal sehat ffor beiing The jangkauan produknya dan servis Goalls: tthe ffoundattiion ffor ffurtther pllanniing Measurable perbuatan ditujukan pada • Step 2: Melakukan eksternal analisa The enviironmenttall scanniing dari speciiffiic dan generall enviironmentts Focuses di mengenali kesempatan dan ancaman © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–11 Strategic Management Process (cont’d) • Sttep 3:: Doiing iintternall anallysiis Assessing organizational sumber penghasilan, kemampuan, dan aktivitas: Sttrengtths creatte vallue ffor tthe custtomer dan sttrengtthen tthe compettiittiive posiittiion dari tthe ffiirm.. Weaknesses bisa pllace tthe ffiirm att compettiittiive diisadvanttage.. Analyzing keuangan dan fisik aset cukup mudah, tetapi menilai aset yang tak nyata (employee’s ketrampilan, kebudayaan, reputasi bisnis, dan semacamnya) isn’t semudah. • Steps 2 dan 3 gabungan

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–12 Exhiibiit 8–3 Corporate Rankiings (partiiall lliists) Sumber: “America’s Most Admired Companies,” Fortune, 22 Februari, 2006, p. 65; “The 100 Perusahaan Terbaik untuk menjalankan For,” Fortune, Januari 11, 2006, p. 89; R. Alsop, “Ranking Corporate Reputations,” Wall Street Journal, 6 Desember, 2005, p. B1; dan “The 100 Top Brands,” BusinessWeek, 1 Agustus, 2005, p. 90. Interbrand/BusinessWeek 100 Macam Global yang Tertinggi (2005) 1. Coca-Cola 2. Microsoft 3. IBM 4. Jenderal Electric 5. Intel Harris Interactive/Wall Street Journal National Corporate Reputation (2005) 1. Johnson & Johnson 2. Coca-Cola 3. Google 4. Mempersatukan Industri Jawa Bingkisan 5. 3M Company Hay Group/Fortune America’s Most Admired Companies (2006) Great Place untuk menjalankan Institute/Fortune 100 Perusahaan Terbaik untuk Bekerja Untuk (2006) 1. Jenderal Electric 2. FedEx 3. Perusahaan Penerbangan barat daya 4. Procter & Gamble 5. Starbucks 1. Genentech 2. Wegman’s Food Markets 3. Valero Energy 4. Griffin Hospital 5. W. L.

Process (cont’d) • Step 4: Formulating strategies Devellop dan evalluatte sttrattegiic alltternattiives Sellectt appropriiatte sttrattegiies ffor allll llevells iin tthe organiizattiion tthatt proviide rellattiive advanttage over compettiittors Mattch organiizattiionall sttrengtths tto enviironmenttall opporttuniittiies Correctt kelemahan dan menjaga agaiinstt tthreatts © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–14 Strategic Management Process (cont’d) • Step 5: Implementing strategies IImpllementatiion: effffecttiivelly ffiittttiing organiizattiionall sttructture dan acttiiviittiies tto tthe enviironmentt.. The enviironmentt diicttattes tthe dipilih sttrattegy;; effffecttiive sttrattegy iimpllementtattiion requiires an organiizattiionall sttructture mattched tto iitts requiirementts.. • Step 6: Evaluating results How effffecttiive mempunyai sttrattegiies ialah? Whatt adjjusttmentts,, iiff yang mana pun,, perlu?

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–15 Types of Organizational Strategiies • Corporate Strategies Top managementt’s overallll pllan ffor tthe enttiire organiizattiion dan iitts sttrattegiic busiiness uniitts • Types of Corporate Strategies Growtth:: expansiion iintto baru productts dan marketts Sttabiilliitty:: maiinttenance dari tthe sttattus quo Renewall:: rediirecttiion dari tthe ffiirm iintto baru marketts © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–17 Corporate Strategiies • Growth Strategy Seekiing tto iincrease tthe organiizattiion’s busiiness by expansiion iintto baru productts dan marketts.. • Types of Growth Strategies Concenttrattiion Verttiicall iinttegrattiion Horiizonttall iinttegrattiion Diiversiiffiicattiion

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–18 Growth Strategiies • Concentration Focusiing di priimary lliine dari busiiness dan iincreasiing tthe bilangan dari productts offffered atau marketts melayani.. • Vertical Integration Backward verttiicall iinttegrattiion:: attttempttiing tto gaiin conttroll dari iinputts (menjadi sellff-supplliier).. Forward verttiicall iinttegrattiion:: attttempttiing tto gaiin conttroll dari outtputt tthrough conttroll dari tthe diisttriibuttiion channell atau proviide custtomer serviice acttiiviittiies (elliimiinattiing iinttermediiariies).. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–19 Growth Strategiies (cont’d) • Horizontal Integration Combiiniing operattiions wiitth anotther compettiittor iin tthe yang sama iindusttry tto iincrease compettiittiive sttrengtths dan llower compettiittiion di antara iindusttry riivalls.. • Related Diversification Expandiing oleh combiiniing wiitth ffiirms iin diifffferentt,, menanduk rellatted iindusttriies tthatt ialah “sttrattegiic ffiitts.. ” • Unrelated Diversification Growiing oleh combiiniing wiitth ffiirms iin unrellatted iindusttriies di mana hiigher ffiinanciiall retturns ialah possiiblle.. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–20 Growth Strategiies (cont’d) • Stability Strategy A

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–21 Growth Strategiies (cont’d) • Renewal Strategies Devellopiing sttrattegiies tto countter organiizattiion kelemahan tthatt ialah lleadiing tto perfformance declliines.. Retrenchment: menumpukan menghapuskan non-critical kelemahan dan memulihkan kekuatan untuk mengatasi current masalah kinerja. Turnaround: menyapa jangka panjang kritis performance masalah lewat penggunaan penyingkiran yang dihargai yang kuat measures dan berskala besar organizational mengubah struktur pemecahan. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All hak-hak dipesan. 8–19 Growth Strategiies (cont’d) • Horizontal Integration Combiiniing operattiions wiitth anotther compettiittor iin tthe yang sama iindusttry tto iincrease compettiittiive sttrengtths and llower compettiittiion di antara iindusttry riivalls.. • Related Diversification Expandiing oleh combiiniing wiitth ffiirms iin diifffferentt,, butt rellatted iindusttriies tthatt ialah “sttrattegiic ffiitts.. ” • Unrelated Diversification Growiing oleh combiiniing wiitth ffiirms iin unrellatted iindusttriies di mana hiigher ffiinanciiall retturns ialah possiiblle..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–25
The Role of Competitive Advantage
• Competitive Advantage
An organiizattiion’s diisttiincttiive compettiittiive edge..
• Quality as a Competitive Advantage
Diifffferenttiiattes tthe ffiirm ffrom iitts compettiittors..
Can creatte a susttaiinablle compettiittiive advanttage..
Representts tthe company’s ffocus on qualliitty
managementt tto achiieve conttiinuous iimprovementt and
meett custtomers’ demand ffor qualliitty..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–25
The Role of Competitive Advantage
• Competitive Advantage
An organiizattiion’s diisttiincttiive compettiittiive edge..
• Quality as a Competitive Advantage
Diifffferenttiiattes tthe ffiirm ffrom iitts compettiittors..
Can creatte a susttaiinablle compettiittiive advanttage..
Representts tthe company’s ffocus on qualliitty
managementt tto achiieve conttiinuous iimprovementt and
meett custtomers’ demand ffor qualliitty..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–26
The Role of Competitive Advantage
(cont’d)
• Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Conttiinuiing over ttiime tto effffecttiivelly explloiitt resources
and devellop core compettenciies tthatt enablle an
organiizattiion tto keep iitts edge over iitts iindusttry
compettiittors..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–27
Five Competiitiive Forces
• Threat of New Entrants
The ease or diiffffiiculltty wiitth whiich new compettiittors can
entter an iindusttry..
• Threat of Substitutes
The exttentt tto whiich swiittchiing costts and brand lloyalltty
affffectt tthe lliikelliihood off custtomers adopttiing substtiittuttes
productts and serviices..
• Bargaining Power of Buyers
The degree tto whiich buyers have tthe markett sttrengtth
tto holld sway over and iinfflluence compettiittors iin an
iindusttry..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–28
Five Competiitiive Forces
• Bargaining Power of Suppliers
The rellattiive number off buyers tto supplliiers and
tthreatts ffrom substtiittuttes and new enttrantts affffectt tthe
buyer-supplliier rellattiionshiip..
• Current Rivalry
IInttensiitty among riivalls iincreases when iindusttry
growtth rattes sllow,, demand ffalllls,, and productt priices
descend..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–30
Types of Competitive Strategiies
• Cost Leadership Strategy
Seekiing tto attttaiin tthe llowestt ttottall overallll costts rellattiive
tto otther iindusttry compettiittors..
• Differentiation Strategy
Attttempttiing tto creatte a uniique and diisttiincttiive productt
or serviice ffor whiich custtomers wiillll pay a premiium..
• Focus Strategy
Usiing a costt or diifffferenttiiattiion advanttage tto explloiitt a
parttiicullar markett segmentt ratther a llarger markett..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–31
The Rulle of Three
• Similar to Porter’s generic competitive strategies
The compettiittiive fforces iin an iindusttry wiillll creatte a
siittuattiion where tthree companiies (ffullll-lliine generalliistts)
wiillll domiinatte a markett..
Some ffiirms iin tthe markett become “super niiche
pllayers” and whiille otthers end up as “diittch dwellllers..”
Fiirms unablle tto devellop eiitther a costt or diifffferenttiiattiion
advanttage become “sttuck iin tthe miiddlle” and llack
prospectts ffor llong-tterm success..
A ffew ffiirms successffulllly pursue botth diifffferenttiiattiion
and costt advanttages..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–32
Strategic Management Today
• Strategic Flexibility
• New Directions in Organizational Strategies
e-busiiness
custtomer serviice
iinnovattiion

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–33
Exhiibiit 8–7 Creatiing Strategiic Fllexiibiilliity
• Know what’s happening with strategies currently being
used by monitoring and measuring results.
• Encourage employees to be open about disclosing
and sharing negative information.
• Get new ideas and perspectives from outside the
organization.
• Have multiple alternatives when making strategic
decisions.
• Learn from mistakes.
Source: Based on K. Shimizu and M. A. Hitt, “Strategic Flexibility: Organizational Preparedness to Reverse
Ineffective Strategic Decisions,” Academy of Management Executive, November 2004, pp. 44–59.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–34
How the Internet Has Changed Busiiness
• The Internet allows businesses to:
Creatte knowlledge bases tthatt emplloyees can ttap iintto
anyttiime,, anywhere..
Turn custtomers iintto collllaborattiive parttners who hellp
desiign,, ttestt,, and llaunch new productts..
Become viirttualllly paperlless iin speciiffiic ttasks such as
purchasiing and ffiilliing expense reportts..
Manage llogiisttiics iin reall ttiime
Change tthe natture off work ttasks tthroughoutt tthe
organiizattiion..

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–35
Strategies for Appllyiing e-Busiiness
Techniiques
• Cost Leadership
On-lliine acttiiviittiies:: biiddiing,, order processiing,, iinventtory
conttroll,, recruiittmentt and hiiriing
• Differentiation
IIntternett-based knowlledge systtems,, on-lliine orderiing
and custtomer supportt
• Focus
Chatt rooms and diiscussiion boards,, ttargetted web
Siittes

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–36
Customer Serviice Strategiies
• Giving the customers what they want.
• Communicating effectively with them.
• Providing employees with customer service
training.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–37
Innovation Strategiies
• Possible Events
Radiicall breaktthroughs iin productts..
Applliicattiion off exiisttiing ttechnollogy tto new uses..
• Strategic Decisions about Innovation
Basiic research
Productt devellopmentt
Process iinnovattiion
• First Mover
An organiizattiion tthatt briings a productt iinnovattiion tto
markett or use a new process iinnovattiions

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–38
Exhiibiit 8–8 Fiirst-Mover Advantages–Diisadvantages
• Advantages
Reputation for being
innovative and industry
leader
Cost and learning benefits
Control over scarce
resources and keeping
competitors from having
access to them
Opportunity to begin
building customer
relationships and customer
loyalty
• Diisadvantages
Uncertainty over exact
direction technology and
market will go
Risk of competitors
imitating innovations
Financial and strategic risks
High development costs

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–39
Terms to Know
• strategic management
• strategies
• business model
• strategic management process
• mission
• opportunities
• threats
• resources
• capabilities
• core competencies
• strengths
• weaknesses
• SWOT analysis
• corporate strategy
• growth strategy
• related diversification
• unrelated diversification
• stability strategy
• renewal strategy
• retrenchment strategy
• turnaround strategy
• BCG matrix
• business or competitive
strategy
• strategic business units
• competitive advantage

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8–40
Terms to Know (cont’d)
• cost leadership strategy
• differentiation strategy
• focus strategy
• stuck in the middle
• functional strategies
• strategic flexibility
• first mover

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